Dictionary beginning with S
- Second Directorate of the Federal Ministry of Interior
The IInd Directorate of the National security corps, the Main administration of the Counterintelligence, was created during the reorganisation of the Federal Ministry of Interior on 1 October 1988 by merging the former Directorates for the fight against the external enemy (formerly IInd Directorate of the Federal Ministry of Interior), for the fight against the internal enemy (formerly Xth Directorate) and for the protection of the economy (formerly XIth Directorate).
According to its organisational order of 15 March 1989 the Main Directorate of the Counterintelligence was entrusted with the following tasks: uncovering enemy activities of intelligence services on the territory of the ČSSR; uncovering enemy activities of citizens of the ČSSR and foreigners carrying out these activities on the territory of the ČSSR in connection with foreign intelligence services; uncovering, prevention and curtailing of enemy activities of persons threatening the internal order of the ČSSR; carrying out counterintelligence measures against ideological diversion; carrying out counterintelligence protection of specified buildings; in cooperation with the intelligence service, participation in penetration into central offices of enemy intelligence services (including participation in so-called intelligence games); participation in the protection of state secrets of the ČSSR; in cooperation with the military counterintelligence, participation in the protection of military buildings (including places of dislocation of Soviet units); implementation of preventive educational measures with the goal of prevention or curtailing of enemy activity; curtailing of ativity of terrorists or terrorist groups on the territory of the ČSSR; penetration into the environment of embassies and uncovering intelligence personnel serving there.
From the point of view of structure, the focus of the Main Directorate of the Counterintelligence was evident. These were its sections:
- For the fight against the so-called external enemy:
- Section 1 – directed against the USA and countries of Latin America
- Section 2 – FRG and Austria
- Section 3 – Great Britain, France and other NATO countries, protection of the Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Section 4 – Afro-Asian countries, terrorism, human trafficking organisations, protection of Soviet armies
- Sections for protection of the economy:
- Section 5 –pre-production sphere, industry, agriculture
- Section 6 – protection of the Federal Ministry of Foreign Trade, enterprises of foreign trade, economic representations of foreign companies
- Section 7 – taffic, communications, energy
- Section 8 – protection of state, economic and service secrets
- Sections for the fight against the internal enemy:
- Section 9 – churches, religious societies, sects
- Section 10 – counterintelligence measures against enemy groups / right-wing anti-socialist forces, former Communists, flyers, Czechosovak People’s Party, Czechoslovak Socialist Party, trade unions, independent initiatives, Charter 77, Committee for the defence of the unjustly prosecuted, Movement for civic freedom, Party of democratic socialism
- Section 11 – youth, science, education, culture
- Section 12 – ideological diversion centres and emigree organisations
The tasks of the State Security toward the anti-regime opposition remained constant during the 1980s – to impede the action readiness of the internal enemy, to incite and support mutual mistrust in the structures of the opposition, to disturb relations and connections to abroad and to discredit important representatives of the opposition.
See also: Counterintelligence residentura of the Federal ministry of interior
- For the fight against the so-called external enemy:
- Section 1 of Directorate X
- 1974 - 1977 Jiří Dvořák
- 1977 - 1979 lt. col. Oldřich Mézl
- 1980 - 1986 maj. Karel Vykypěl
- 1986 - 1987 maj. Milan Kopinec
- 1987 - 1988 maj. Miroslav Chovanec
The main activity of Section 1 was the monitoring of so-called right-wing opportunism, domestic opposition, dissidents... This category included expelled members of the Communist party of Czechoslovakia who had taken active part in public life in 1968. At the same time, Section 1 secured the counterintelligence work on some organisations associated in the National front and of organisations active on the entire the territory of Czechoslovakia. Often these were pro-regime organisations which were nevertheless carefully monitored by the State security, such as the Union of Czechoslovak-Soviet friendship.
- Department 1 – leading persons of the right-wing and Czechoslovak emigration from among leading persons of the right-wing
- Department 2 - leading persons from among former staff members of the state apparatus
- Department 3 – operative completion of selected action.
Detailed attention was paid to Charter 77 and the Committee for the defense of the unjustly prosecuted (VONS). Department 3 was dedicated to their surveillance. Within its information systems, Section 1 kept elaborate records of the Charter 77 signatories and members of VONS. The secret police used so-called preventive measures particularly against representatives of the opposition and dissidents which were supposed to make their life difficult in various ways – such as frequent summons for interrogations and interviews, dismissals from work or different forms of harassment by the authorities. A popular method was the abuse of Art. 19 Act No. 40/1974 Coll., on the National security corps, which provided authorisation to request explanation in connection with the search for criminal acts, offences or misdemeanours. Article 19 was applied for summoning persons of operative interest by Directorate X of the National security corps, not only for the purpose of their interrogation but also as a pretext to prevent their participation in various dissident meetings, protest actions etc.
A highly efficient measure was also the utilisation of the institution of securing a person pursuant to Article 23 Act on the National security corps. The State security namely used the securing for up to 48 hours even in cases when the necessary official act consisted merely of the prevention of further participation of a dissident in “rowdyism or similar actions”. The institution of securing a person was thus understood as one of the possible preventive measures. The secret police used it particularly against the organisation of apartment seminars, for breaking up meetings of underground groups or as a prevention in times of important anniversaries, state holidays or important state visits in the ČSSR.
In 1981-1982, Directorate X organised a nationwide preventive action IZOLACE, which was directed particularly at “causing disorientation and a feeling of meaninglessness of opposition activity” and at the decomposition of dissident groups. Next to that, the State security prepared measures for securing calm during the times of preparation and the execution of important events, such as e.g. teh celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the establishment of the Communist party of Czechoslovakia, the course of the XVIth congress of the Communist party or the elections into representative bodies.
Next to the dissident movement, staff members of Directorate X of the National security corps dealt in detail with a number of other groups of citizens suspected of “enemy opinion”. All these topics fell under the authority of Deparment 2 of Section 1. In the first place, it was the surveillance and influencing of the non-Communist parties in the National front. In these parties, staff members tried first of all to uncover purported “right-wing opportunists”, meaning persons whom they suspected of representing enemy views and striving for a more independent position of their party. However suspicion was aroused by practically anybody who did not identify with the Communist regime without reservations.
As a part of the division of competencies among individual Departments of Section 1, Department 2 was also in charge of so-called illegal written materials. Staff members of this unit thus specialised in uncovering authors and disseminators of all kinds of “illegal” written materials and their copying centres and distribution channels. They searched for technical equipment used for the multiplication of samizdat materials and upon discovery, they then put it out of order.
- Section 12 of Directorate I
- in 1988 Capt. Jan Dušek
Section 12 – the organisational and operational section. It task was to fulfill duties pertaining to the internal regime, the protection of classified facts, special security actions and the protection of buildings of the Directorate, based on ministry regulations and commands of the chief of the Directorate. It fulfilled duties connected with the construction of the KAHAN building and its use in times of peace and in times of military alert of the state, as the main wartime workplace of the Directorate.
The Section was further responsible for the methodological control of organisational units of the Directorate in processing normative material. It steered, controlled and participated in the securing of administrative work and the records service of the Directorate, it fulfilled duties of the postal station and secured the copying and publication of normative material. It recorded generally binding legal regulations and further internal regulations necessary for the securing of the tasks of the Directorate.
It secured the activity of the operational centre of the Directorate, it secured the entrusted tasks in the field of international cooperation and translating services.
- Section 21 of Directorate I
- Section 2 of Directorate B (1969-1971), Section for “special services“ (1971-1974), Section 21 – analyses of special services (1974-1976)
- 1971 - 1975 Lt.Col. Stanislav Tomeš "Formánek"
The activity of Section 21 of Directorate I was directed at gathering information about the activity of foreign intelligence and counterintelligence services of Western countries against the ČSSR, the Communist countries and the Communist and “anti-imperialist“ movements. The Section attempted to uncover helpers of these services in the ČSSR and organised active measures for hindering their activity, and to compromise and discredit “imperialism“ in the eyes of the international public. It worked on the issue of traitors – emigrants from among the bearers of state secrets of special importance.
As of 1 February 1976, Section 21 with 14 staff positions was abolished.
- Section 23 - Illegal foreign intelligence
- Until 1968: Section 11, between 19691971: Section 2 of Directorate D, between 1974-1989: Section 23 – Section selection, education and steering of the illegal foreign intelligence
- 1971 – Lt.Col. Štěpán Meixner "Mráz"
Section 23 recruited, selected and prepared candidates for illegal foreign intelligence activity. It sent out illegal intelligence agents and directed the illegal foreign intelligence apparatus abroad. It built and organised mutual operative contacts with the illegal foreign intelligence apparatus. It directed the network of agents created abroad or taken over by the illegal foreign intelligence apparatus. Based on the goals and tasks of the illegal foreign intelligence postulate by the minister of interior of the ČSSR, it organised the assessment of buildings and gathering of secret signals, information and documents on the political, military, science and technological and economic potential of the “capitalist“ states, with the goal of uncovering plans and intentions of “imperialist“ countries against the ČSSR and the Commnist countries as well as the measures of the intelligence and counterintelligence bodies against the ČSSR.
- Section 25 of Directorate I
- Section 33 – Section of defence and inspection /1971-1974), Section 33 – control, defence and protection of secret information (1974-1982), Section 25 – defence and protection of the apparatus of the Czechoslovak foreign intelligence
- 1971 - 1975 lt. col. René Kraus "Kinský"
Until 1974, the Section was an operative unit of Directorate I which organised and coordinated the fields of work of the foreign intelligence associated with the securing of its safety. The goal of the activity was to avoid threats to the safety of the foreign intelligence, its staff and the secret information from the side of special enemy forces. It followed the interests and attempts of enemy special forces to penetrate the Czechoslovak foreign intelligence, it analysed the gathered information and knowledge and presented proposals and recommended measures for securing the safety of intelligence work. It carried out monitoring inspection work based on orders of the chief of Directorate I. It elucidated cases of violation of service regulations and directives of the chief and presented them to the Inspection of the Ministry of interior of the ČSSR for investigation.
In 1974, the inspection group separated from the Section (See: Inspection of the chief of Directorate I).
The section organised, coordinated and executed tasks associated with the protection of the defence appratus including the technical defence of special buildings of Directorate I. The Section particularly assessed the interest and motifs of enemy special forces regarding staff members of the Czechoslovak foreign intelligence, as well as violations of the obligatory professional discretion about secret information which the staff members came into contact with during their work for Directorate I. It carried out preventive monitoring of selected former staff members of Directorate I who had been dismissed or released from active duty. It carried our preventive defence interviews with former staff members of the Directorate, their exploitation upon return from abroad and it gathered further facts necessary for the defence of the foreign intelligence apparatus.
- Section 31 of Directorate I
- Emigrant section )1971-1974), Section 31 (1974-1988), Section 26 (1988-1990) – foreign counterintelligence, ideo-diversion and emigration
- 1971 – 1984 Maj. Jan Penčík "Pozorný"
- until 1978 deputy chief Lt.Col. Václav Lenert "Lahoda"
- 1984 – 1989 Lt.Col. Milan Jelínek "Brodský"
- 1988 – 1989 deputy chief Maj. Jiří Vedral "Kabíček"
The Section worked on active “anti-Czechoslovak“ and “anti-socialist“ centres and prominent persons of the Czechoslovak emigration. It gathered information about the political and “ideo-diversive“ activity of the emigration with the goal of uncovering helpers in the ČSSR and uncovering the influence and channels into the ČSSR. It carried out active measures for influencing the emigration and liquidation of “anti-state and anti-socialist“ activities.
In 1988, the Section was merged with Section 26.
- Section 36 of Directorate I
- Disinformation section (1963), Section for active measures and disinformation – Section 8 (1964-1968), Department 1 Section 3 Directorate B (1969-1971), Section of psychological operations of Directorate I (1971-1974), Section 36 – active and influencing measures (1974-1989)
- 1963 – 1964 Capt. Jaromír Zbořil „Zajíc“
- 1964 – 1969 Maj. Jiří Stejskal „Borecký“
- 1969 – 1971 Lt.Col. Jan Ondrovčák „Ostrovský“
- 1971 – 1973 Capt. Emanuel Havlík „Hlavsa“
- 1973 – 1974 Lt.Col. Josef Němec „Nový“
- from 1974 Col. Jan Ondrovčák „Ostrovský“
- 1977 - 1981 deputy chief Lt.Col. Jaroslav Škaroupka "Škácha"
- 1979 deputy chief Lt.Col. František Šefr "Pála"
- from 1988 Maj. Jaroslav Sládeček „Pánik“
The Section which directed and carried out psychological actions and operations in accordance with the focus of the foreign intelligence in the fields of politics, economy, science and technology, the military, “fight against the emigration“, fight against the special forces and fight against the psychological warfare tools of the enemy. Active measures were carried out in individual operations which followed long-term strategic goals on concrete issues (e.g. support of the “peace movement“ in Western Europe, compromising NATO, the exile or the opposition in the ČSSR). The operations carried out by specific foreign intelligence forms of work especially in “capitalist“ and developing countries were follow one upon another and escalate.
The purpose of active and influencing measures was to influence the positions and actions of individuals, groups of persons and the inhabitants of a certain region of interest or of decision making centres in favour of the foreign policy of the Comunist bloc. Systematic influencing measures were introduced by Directorate I of the Federal ministry of interior as the first unit of the State security. In 1964, it expanded a specialised workplace of the foreign intelligence into Section 8 for active measures. During the 1960s, small workplaces for disinformation of persons of interest were also introduced at the Counterintelligence Directorate and the Militay Counterintelligence. Their activity was coordinated with the similar apparatus of the Intelligence administration of the General staff (ZSGŠ).
A specialised workplace of the Main Directorate I of the KGB in cooperation with identically oriented segments of the satellite foreing intelligence services produced an enormous amount of false or targeted information. It was the interest of the Soviet bloc to utilise disinformation and other active measures aimaed against the countries of the “main enemy“.
The influencing policy was defined in the corresponding directive as a sum of measures for supporting or promoting the interests of Communist Czechoslovakia and the entire Soviet bloc. One of the forms were secret active measures. Every operative unit of the foreign intelligence was obliged to present such proposals. A further form was disinformation activity aimed at the desorientation of the professional adversary. In organising the active measures, the foreign intelligence focused mainly on organising, supporting or utilisation of mass or other important events, on the influencing of politics through persons, organisations and groups in high positions, on utilisation of high-quality forgeries of documents, including periodicals and flyers (operation Neptun), discreditation or scandalisation of persons, disinformation of enemies and intelligence games under foreign flags. A specific area were demonstrative active measures or so-called sharp measures.
Between 1971-1974, the Section had about 48 staff members. On 1 July 1978 a reorganisation took place in Section 36 and on 1 December 1979 the operative agent department with 11 staff members was abolished.
Structure in 1989:
- Internal group
- Technical group
- Department 1 – political unit
- Department 2 – ideo-diversion central office
- Section 37 of Directorate I
- Section 4 of the political foreign intelligence – Germanic region (1956-1963), Section 2 of the political foreing intelligence (1964-1968), Section 2 of Directorate A (1969-1971), Section Germany, Austria, Netherlands (1971-1974)
“For Directorate I of the Ministry of interior of the ČSR, the penetration into the intelligence and counterintelligence bodies of Austria and West Germany is paramount, as well as into the intelligence bodies of the USA, England and France which are located on the territory of Austria and West Germany, because they are the two main bases for expediting bourgeois foreign intelligence services into the ČSR and other people‘s-democratic countries“ (from the plan of activity of Directorate I of the Ministry of interior 1957-1958).
- 1956 – 1962 Capt. Milan Michel "Mozr“
- 1962 – Maj. Zdeněk Skoba "Sýkora“
- 1964 – 1970 Maj. Václav Táborský "Majer"
- 1969 – 1981 Lt.Col. Miroslav Burgr "Bareš"
- 1971 – 1974, 1978 – 1981 deputy chief Lt.Col. Věroslav Sobotka "Štros"
- 1972 – deputy chief Lt.Col. Jiří Karbus "Kuchař"
- 1981 – 1984 Maj. Vilém Václavek "Kainar“
- 1984 – Maj. Oldřich Vaca "Drtina“
- 1988 – Maj. Karel Platl "Falkman“
Between 1974-1990, Section of the political foreign intelligence. The main focus was on intelligence work on the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany. Abroad it operated from the residenturas Bonn, Frankfurt am Main, West Berlin, Vienna, The Hague and it secured the cooperation on West German issues with the residenturas of other sections of the political foreign intelligence. In the ČSSR, it organised and carried out the assessment of utilisable domestic bases and bases of visa foreigners in close cooperation with Directorate II of the Federal ministry of interior.
At the end of the 1960s, an important agent was won for cooperation, with the code name Pedagog. He worked as deputy headmaster at an evening school in Frankfurt am Main. He was very active in the SPD. At the beginning of the 1980s, he won an agent with the code name Haribo for cooperation under a foreign flag (probably Mossad). He was a deputy in the defence and security committee of the Bundestag. In the evaluation from the end of the 1980s, agent Pedagog is considered “the crucial agent of the entire Section...“. In spring 1990 he visited the congress of the renewed ČSSD (Czechoslovak social democratic party). Agent Haribo, who also was an agent of the East German Stasi, was the only collaborator directed in the 1980s under a foreign flag.
In 1982-1986, top agent Meson (Clyde Lee Conrad) worked in the leadership of the Section – a staff petty officer of the US-American 8th infantry division in the Federal Republic of Germany, who provided secret NATO information to the ČSSR and Hungary, which was highly valued by the Soviet KGB.
In 1988, Sections 37 and 42 merged resulting in a new structure of Section 37:
- Internal group
- Deapartment 1 – FRG, West Berlin
- Department 2 – Austria, Switzerland, Bern, Geneva
- Department 3 – Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Portugal
- Department 4 – France, Belgium, Netherlands
- Deaprtment 5 – Balkans
- Section 4 of Directorate X
- 1976-77 lt. col. Oldřich Mézl
- 1977-83 maj. Josef Nevečeřal
- 1983-88 lt. col. Josef Beneš
- 1974-77 deputy chief lt. col. Jiří Krumphanzl
- 1983-88 deputy chief lt. col. Václav Šíma "Amis"
The Section worked on the issues of ideologial diversion and emigration. It was also in charge of “channels” through which the opposition communicated with the free world. The third Department focused on Ukrainian nationalists and collaborated very closely with the KGB. The most important actions led by Department 4 were files on Jiří Pelikán and Pavel Tigrid. Action Delta against Jiřina Šiklová and others from spring 1981 is also worth mentioning, leading to one of the uncovered roads for smuggling literature. The Section participated in several propaganda films broadcast by Czechoslovak television (“Trees giving no shade”, “A deal with trust”, “EM4 is coming”, etc.)
- Department 1 – Zionism, jewish nationalism, pro-Zionist intelligentsia in science, pro-Zionist youth and world Zionist centres,
- Department 2 – Organisation of Ukrainian nationalists (OUN), Narodno-trudovoy soyuz (NTS), centres of so-called Eastern emigration, Anti-bolshevik bloc of countries (ABN), Radio Liberty, RFE
- Department 3 – former representatives of reactionary political parties, counter-revolutionary and extreme forbidden organisations, former punished agents of enemy foreign intelligence, protection of the parties of the National front, Greek emigration, Trockyism and Maoism,
- Department 4 – illegal press materials and anonymous threat letters, terror, illegal arms, monitoring of records and processing of enemy persons.
- Section 42 of Directorate I
- Section 3 (1964-1968), Section 2 of Directorate A (1969-1971), Section 42 “Evropa“ (1971-1974), in 1988 merged with Section 37
- 1961 – 1964 Section 3 (Italy, France) until 1964, then deputy chief od the new Section 3 capt. František Poštulka "Lamač"
- 1962 – 1963 Section 5 (England, Greece), until 1964 Section 3, then Section 6 – foreign counterintelligence maj. Zdeněk Jodas "Juran"
- 1963 – 1967 deputy chief of Section 5, then deputy chief of Section 3 capt. Přemysl Holan "Hanousek"
- 1969 – 1970 lt. col. Jan Paclík "Novák"
- 1971 – 1972 maj. Zdeněk Vítek "Večeřa"
- 1978 – deputy chief maj. Josef Tománek "Tačner"
- 1980 – 1984 col. Jan Stehno "Skořepa"
By reorganisation of Directorate I in 1964, Section 3 was created – the European section, as a result of merging existing Section 3 (France, Italy) and Section 5 (England, Greece). In 1974-1988 it continued to work as Section 42, political foreign intelligence focused on Western European countries and NATO (except for German speaking countries – these were covered by Section 37). The main focus of the activity was against NATO. Secondarily, it followed important relationship issues of the ČSSR with Great Britain and France, as well as important relationship issues of these countries toward the Eastern bloc, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the issues of the EEC. Abroad it operated from residenturas in Paris, London, Brussels, Rome and Athens.
Its task was to penetrate into the central and local apparatus of NATO. At the same time, it coordinated activities against NATO with further sections of Directorate I. It participated in the preparation and realisation of active measures and psychological operations. The Section had its seat in a villa not far from the espionage school of Directorate I in Prague-Bubeneč which was called Orlík. After 1970, the Section moved into another villa in Dejvice near the counterintelligence building in Thákurova street.
- Section 47 of Directorate I
- Section 4, 1969-1971: Section 3 of Directorate A (Afro-Asian), Section „developing countries“ , 1974-1990: Section 47, in 1982 merged with Section 57
- 1971 – 1972 maj. Miloslav Matějů "Mach"
- 1972 – 1974 lt. col. Vladimír Hrušecký "Houška"
- 1972 – deputy chief lt. col. Václav Smíšek "Stárek"
- 1979 – 1989 lt. col. Josef Zelenka "Závada"
The Section dealt with the issues of African countries, the Near and Middle East and from 1982 upon reorganisation of Section 57 also with Asia (Far East). It was created in 1974 from the Section for developing countries. It fulfilled its tasks abroad through residenturas in Cairo, Beirut, Damascus, Algiers, Baghdad, New Delhi, Jakarta, Beijing and in Africa in Lagos and Dar es Saalam.
Structure in 1989:
- Internal group
- Department 1 – Far East
- Department 2 – Near East
- Section 5 of Directorate X
- 1974 - 1978 col. Albín Kožuch
- 1974 - 1978 deputy chief lt. col. Václav Šubrt
- 1979 - 1983 maj. Josef Sámek
- 1979 - 1986 deputy chief maj. Jiří Bezděcký
- 1983 - 1988 maj. Josef Češelský
- 1986 - 1988 deputy chief maj. Jaroslav Dvořák
The Section dealth with the issues of churches and religious communities. Similarly to Section 4, it focused on the prevention of dissemination of foreign literature and samizdat editions, however solely with religious content. Its task was to monitor and prevent foreign contacts of members of legal and illegal churches. Oit had two departments:
- Department 1 – Roman-Catholic church and its foreign centres,
- Department 2 – non-Catholic churches and their foreign centres.
In 1985, so-called counterintelligence protection was provided to:
- Archbishop’s Palace Prague;
- Czech Catholic charity;
- Association of Catholic clerics Pacem in terris;
- Catholic newspapers, Spiritual shepherd;
- Evangelical church of Czech brethren Prague;
- Czechoslovak Hussite church Prague;
- Baptist Unity of the Brethren Prague;
- Church of the seventh day adventists Prague;
- Unity of the Brethren Prague;
- Church of the Brethren Prague;
- Evangelical methodist church Prague;
- Religious society of Czechoslovak unitarians Prague;
- Orthodox church Prague;
- Komenius evangelical theological faculty Prague ;
- Hus theological faculty Prague;
- Ecumenic church council of the ČSSR Prague;
- Christian peace conference Prague and its regiona associations.
- Section 50 of Directorate I
- 1971 – 1974 lt. col. Jaroslav Myšík "Císařík"
- 1974 – lt. col. Josef Kostka
- 1972 – 1974 deputy chief maj. Jiří Adámek
- 1972 – deputy chief lt. col. Karel Knor "Kořínek"
- 1984 – lt. col. Josef Mánek "Došek"
The Communications Section secured the encryption, telecommunication and courier connections for the purposes of Directorate I, the internal and organisational Directorate of the Federal ministry of interior and Directorates II and XIII of the National security corps. In particular, it was in charge of the connections for the Central committee of the Communist party of Czechoslovakia, the Office of the Prime minister of the ČSSR, the Federal ministry of foreign affairs (FMZV), the Federal ministry of foreign trade and through the FMZV, also for other ministries.
The Section was responsible for the concept of communication lines.
- Section 55 of Directorate I
- Section 21, Section 15 (1964-1969), Section 1 of Directorate E (1969-1971), Section of operative mechanical evidence, from 1974 – Section 55 (Automation and record section)
- 1961 - 1963 (?) Maj. Rudolf Uher "Ulman"
- 1975 - 1976 charged with the funtion of the chief Maj. Josef Lenský "Hladiš"
- 1978 - deputy chief Lt. Ing. Miroslav Navrátil "Košín"
- 1984 - 1990 Maj. Miroslav Žilka "Škoda"
The Section was reponsible for operative records, registration and the archive. It secured, steered and monitored the execution of the registration, recording and archiving agenda:
- it registered, kept records and the statistical evaluation of all newly introduced files and archived terminated files;
- it kept the nationwide records of persons of interest, it secured and carried out all changes in them and as a part of daily duty, carried out lustrations;
- based on an authorisation by the chief od the Directorate, it carried out monitoring of all operative agent files from the point of view of observing duties and principles ensuing from valid regulations;
- it located, concentrated, evaluated, made excerpts from archived files;
- it kept the central records of blocked persons;
- with the introduction of information technology, it transposed the records into computerised form and created the information systems of Directorate I
In 1967, the creation of an automatised information system of Directorate I was begun, as one of the sub-systems of the integrated information system of the Federal ministry of interior, with the possibility of utilising information from sub-systems of other forces of the ministry. The Section prepared the agenda for the automatised data processing. The individual projects - systems were labelled:
- P7 – analysis of the utilisation of work time of the collective and the individual
- P18 – personnel records (begun in 1971, completed in 1975)
- P24 – evaluation of information activity on the line of political intelligence (begun in 1974, in use from 1975)
- P24/21 – evaluation of information activity on the line of special forces (begun in 1975, in use from 1976
- P31 – American foreign service (sub-system LILIE) – creation begun in 1969
- P38 – personnel records of staff of the FMZV – in routine use fromm 1971, the project served for complete coverage of staff members of the foreign intelligence in legalisation at the FMZV
- P43 – records of persons of interest (later on Consolidated records of persons of interest and files) – begun already in 1966, transferred to new computer technology in 1976
- P47 – persons active in special forces of the adversary – begun in 1967
- P53 – intelligence all-inclusive (includes former projects P50, P51 nd P52), participation of the Directorate for automation development of the Federal ministry of interior, routine use since 1974
Organisation of Section 55 in 1976 (staff numbers)
In 1989 the Section also fulfilled the function of a national body of the ČSSR in the international integration of state security information – the so-called System of consolidated knowledge about the enemy. It secured the technical solution of projects and their operation within the automated information system of Directorate I.
- Section 57 of Directorate I
- Section on Africa, Near and Middle East, from 1988 merged with Section 47 (Asia) – Section Asia, Middle and Far East
- since April 1975 Col. Emil Hrušecký "Hejl"
- 1975 - 1977 deputy chief Col. René Kraus "Kinský"
The section was focused on asian and Far East countries.
See also: Section 47 of Directorate I
- Section 59 of Directorate I
- Section on economic security and services (1971-1974), economic and technical section (until 1975), Economics section
- 1971 – 1974 maj. Jiří Listopad "Lesný"
- 1974 – 1979 col. Miroslav Prokopec
- 1980 – 1984 deputy chief maj. Zdeněk Hurdálek
- 1981 – 1990 maj. JUDr. Jaroslav Henzl (since 1979 deputy chief)
The Section elaborated proposals of plans for the material and financial provisions of Directorate I, it kept the required operative-technical accounting records, it carried out accounting services and cashier activities. It was reponsible for the material and financial provisions for the tasks of Directorate I. It elaborated analyses of the material and financial economy of Directorate I, it secured the maintenance and repairs of the buildings allocated for use to Directorate I. It secured and carried out measures ensuing from work safety and fire safety regulations. It further secured the material and economic provisions for Directorate I in times of military alert of the country. It secured the automobile transportation for the purposes of the Directorate and was responsible for economic use of the provided vehicles. It kept records on persons requesting flats, secured the paid leasure of staff members of Directorate I, was reponsible for internal connections on the material, administrative and technical side.
Structure in 1989:
- Internal group
- Department 1 – finances and planning
- Department 2 – automobile services
- Department 3 – material and technical provisions
- Department 4 – building and accommodation
- Section 69 of Directorate I
- 1971 - 1972 lt. col. Jaroslav Bečka "Bendl"
- 1971 – deputy chief lt. col. Jaroslav Souček "Slavíček"
- 1972 – lt. col. Vladimír Kočí "Konšel"
- 1988 – col. Alois Horsák "Hajský"
- 1983 – deputy chief lt. col. Václav Javůrek "Krofta"
In 1974-1990 Section 69 was the Operative section of Directorate I on the line of the science and technology foreign intelligence. The Section established an agent network in Western countries (businesspeople in Western companies...). It also utilised Czechoslovak citizens and their relations with foreigners. Using “suitable“ citizens, it created an ideological network of agents. It sent staff members with a suitable legend to foreign residenturas and placed them in Czechoslovak state bodies or science and technology institutions (foreign trade companies etc.). It carried out purchases and “procurement“ of technologies, scientific knowledge and samples suitable for use in the national economy (coputers, electronics...) The science and technological foreing intelligence closely cooperated with the Soviet KGB. As of 1 July 1978, it was re-organised.
The structure in 1989:
- Internal group
- Department 1 – Germanic countries
- Department 2 – further European countries
- Department 3 – Far East
- Department 4 – America
- Department 5 – embargo
- Department 6 – PERA
- Section 74 of Directorate I
- Section 2 of Directorate C (1969-1971), Section 2 of the science and technological foreign intelligence (1971-1974)
- since 1985 deputy chief Capt. Ing. Václav Okleštěk "Plotnik"
In 1974-1990, the Section was the analytical and information Section of Directorate I on the line of the science and technological foreign intelligence. It located and planted Czechoslovak citizens abroad wit the purpose of gathering scientific and technological information. It directed the planted agents. It directed the work of the regional bodies of Directorate I working along the lines of science and technological foreign intelligence methodologically and organisationally. It processed the documentation obtained by both science and technological foreign intelligence sections so that they could be passed on to institutions and assessed professionally. It kept official and agent contacts with Czechoslovak state institutions. It created a network of ideological agents from among Czechoslovak citizens and planted its personnel staff in legalisation offices for fulfilling its tasks.
The structure in 1989:
- Internal group
- Documentation group
- Coordination group
- Analytical department
- Section 80 of Directorate I
- Section for the execution, steering and coordination of foreign intelligence activity from the territory of the ČSSR
The Section was crated by re-organisation on 1 April 1982. It carried out, organised and coordinated the foreign intelligence activity from the territory of the ČSSR, in line with the focus and tasks of Directorate I. It carried out its own intelligence acitivities and directed the work of regional sections of Diredcotrate I, it carried out the activity between the operative sections of Directorate I and counterintelligence units of the Federal ministry of interior, especially in the localisation, typisation and recruiting activity, and further in the protection of Czechoslovak communities abroad, the defence and protection of economic interests of the ČSSR abroad. It carried out the monitoring of the fulfilment of tasks given by directives of the chief of Direcdorate I and the work plan of the regional sections of the State security.
- Security apparatus
Each country creates its own security apparatus. In doing so it aims to validate the fundamental attributes of a sovereign and independent state as a subject of international law. This apparatus is not only supposed to defend the territorial integrity of the state, but also to help the state administration to enforce the legal state as well as the observance of law and order. In democratic societies, the structure of the security apparatus is transparent, being based on adopted legislation and subjected to independent evaluation.
In totalitarian societies the security apparatus not only fulfils the role of the supervisor and guardian of adopted legislation, but it often gets abused by the totalitarian power for deliberate interventions against opponents of the regime. Such a reppressive apparatus plays one of the most important roled within the set totalitarian system of the state. It is controlled by, it receives orders from and is fully subjugated to the interests of the governing establishment. It is fully under control of the state party and its decision making positions are occupied by faithful party members.
In Communist Czechoslovakia, the reppressive security apparatus was composed of the following forces: the National security corps (Public security and State security), the People’s militia, units of the Czechoslovak people’s army and the Corps of correctional education. After the collapse of the totalitarian regime in the ČSSR at the end of 1989, parts of this security apparatus were either directly dissolved, or they were purged and transformed into a new, democratic form.