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Dictionary beginning with D

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D

Defector

In the Communist terminology, the term “traitor“ was used. It was the term for an internal employee, an officer of the secret service who changed sides to another – foreign intelligence service. The best known Czechoslovak defectors were former member of the intelligence service of the General staff František Tišler and further Ladislav Bittman "Brychta", Antonín Nenko "Nedvěd", Josef Frolík "Florián", František August "Adam", Václav Marouš "Macourek", Stanislav Kaplan "Daníček" and Milan Štafl "Šerák" from the 1st Directorate of the Minitry of interior who left the foreign intelligence in the wake of the occupation of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. At the end of the Communist regime, defectors included Jan Fila "Šturma" and Vlastimil Ludvík "Pantůček".

Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior

Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior, Directorate I of the National Security Corps, Main Intelligence Service Directorate – the main organizational body of the intelligence services of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia. Foreign-political intelligence service (with the cover name Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior) was created in October 1953 within the scope of the emergence of the Ministry of the Interior in close cooperation with Soviet advisors. The original apparatus of 180 agents at the headquarters and 18 residenturas at the end of 1955 increased to 327 people. A hundred and twenty-three servicemen worked abroad, of those, 90 were operatives who were legalized in positions as employees of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, foreign trade or the Czechoslovak Press Agency. In addition to infiltrating central state organs of Western states, their agent operative activity was aimed against those in exile, the Vatican, and Radio Free Europe, among others. The Intelligence Service was not systematically focused only on the standard acquisition of secret information, but also on the discrediting of exile leaders, disinformation of Western intelligence services, abductions, and in limited cases, even on the physical liquidation of persons.

After February 1948, the Intelligence Service became an important part of the communist state apparatus. The existing intelligence missions at embassies crippled by mass desertion virtually collapsed. The first residenturas began to be established at embassies, which in addition to gathering political intelligence were tasked with defence (especially to prevent desertions). The servicemen also relied on communists – embassy personnel who were secretly recruited. The intelligence apparatus of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia fully and actively supported the Intelligence Services, particularly in the selection of agents.

At the end of 1948, former international brigade member Oskar Valeš, until then the regional organizational secretary of the Communist Party in Ústí nad Labem, was tasked with rebuilding the existing Intelligence Service. The Intelligence Service relocated to the former Chinese embassy and the operational sector was placed in a secret building in the centre of Prague (Danube Palace). Its activities were directed against the Czechoslovak exile and against the Western states. From May 1950, Soviet advisors also worked in the Intelligence Service.

Number of servicemen: in 1950 – about 100 people, in 1953 – 360 people, in 1957 – 520 people, in 1959 – 770 people, in 1961 – 930 people.

In April 1951 there were purges which removed all but a few servicemen from the Intelligence Services. Valeš too was arrested and sentenced. From 1953, thanks to agreements with the KGB, their ranks grew rapidly. At the request of the Soviet intelligence services it was agreed to extend the work of the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service around the world. In 1953, Colonel Jaroslav Miller "Mašek" became the Chief of the Intelligence Services. From 1954, the Intelligence Services functioned as a separate unit of the Ministry of the Interior called Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior. Miller was recalled in 1961 and replaced with Colonel Josef Houska.

In addition to the Political Intelligence and Foreign Counterintelligence sections, a Scientific-Technical Intelligence Section was created as well as a separate Illegal Intelligence Section, etc. In 1964, the rest of the specialized sections (e.g. the Active and Influential Measures Section) were created and the radio operators of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were taken over (after the cipherers and diplomatic couriers). By 1 January 1968, the Intelligence Service had a staff of 1,236 servicemen (not including cipherers, radio operators, couriers 4,020), of whom 352 were operational and non-operative staff posted abroad.

Houska was dismissed from the post of chief in 1968 and replaced by Major Miloslav Čech "Čada". In August 1968, Houska briefly returned. After him Directorate I was briefly led by Colonel Čestmír Podzemný. From 1971 – 1981 the Intelligence Service was directed by General RSDr. Miloš Hladík and from 1981 – 1989 by General Karel Sochor and then very briefly by Colonel Karel Vodrážka. The last chief was Lieutenant Colonel PhDr. Vilém Václavek "Kainar".

In 1974, members of the Communist Party made up 89.3% of all members of Directorate I, whereas among operatives working in the field this number was 98.3%. Even in 1974, after about 30% of the staff was changed, among 99 leading positions 25 were staffed by people with only primary education.

Directorate X of the Federal ministry of interior

Chiefs:

  • 1974 - 1982 maj. gen.  Vladimír Stárek
  • 1982 - 1988 col. Zdeněk Wiederlechner
  • 1974 - 1977 col. Jaroslav Saksl
  • 1975 – 1979 lt.col. Karel Vrba
  • 1976 - 1981 col. Viktor Hladný
  • 1977 - 1986 lt. col. Jiří Dvořák
  • 1979 - 1981 lt. col. Oldřich Mézl
  • 1983 - 1988 lt. col. Josef Sámek
  • 1983 - 1985 lt. col. Antonín Král
  • 1986 - 1988 deputy chief lt. col. Karel Vykypěl

By order No. 15/1974 from 20 May 1974, federal minister of interior Jaromír Obzina dissolved the existing Main directorate of the counterintelligence on 30 June 1974 and established the Directorate of the counterintelligence for the fight against the external enemy (Directorate II of the Federal ministry of interior), the Directorate of the counterintelligence for the fight against the internal enemy (Directorate X of the Federal ministry of interior), and the Directorate of the counterintelligence for the protection of the economy (Directorate XI of the Federal ministry of interior). The newly established Directorate X was to direct and organise couterintelligence activities on the entire territory of Czechoslovakia against the domestic opposition and non-conformist groups of citizens. It was to concentrate mainly on “organisers of enemy groupings and main bearers and disseminators of right-wing opportunism, revisionism, Zionism, Trockyism, Maoism, Ukrainian nationalism and bourgeois ideologies in the field of societal suprastructures – particularly in culture and art, science, at universities, in the mass media ...” and to uncover “persons acting toward disturbing the state church policy in the ČSSR.”   

Directorate X of the Federal ministry of interior was subordinated to the 1st deputy minister of interior of the ČSSR maj. gen. Ján Hanuliak. In 1979-1985 Directorate X was in the competence of 1st deputy minister of interior maj. gen. Ján Kováč, in 1985-1988 deputy minister of interior maj. gen. Alojz Lorenc.   

The internal structure of Directorate X:

  • Leadership
  • Organisational and operational section (internal section until 1986)
  • Analytical, information and planning section (analytical, information, planning and monitoring section until 1986)
  • Personnel group (Personnel and schooling department until 1986)
  • Chief’s inspection (Inspection of the Directorate chief until 1986)
  • Defence group (Defence preparation and protection until 1986)
  • Section 1 of Directorate X – right-wing and opportunistic forces:
    • Department 1 – leading persons of the right-wing and Czechoslovak emigration from among leading persons of the right-wing
    • Department 2 - leading persons from among former staff members of the state apparatus
    • Department 3 – operative completion of selected action.
  • Section 2 of Directorate X – culture, science, mass media and centres of ideological diversion:
    • Deaprtment 1 – ministry of culture and art associations, foreign ideo-diversion centres and publishers,
    • Department 2 – science, health care, enemy ideo-diversion centres on the line of science and protection of societal organisations of exceptional importance,
    • Department 3 – Czechoslovak radio, television, film, Czech press agency ČTK, International journalist organisation, Czech and Cechoslovak union of journalists and respective ideo-diversion centres abroad.
  • Section 3 of Directorate X – youth, schools, foreign students and sport:
    • Department 1 – ministry of education, universities, Institute for foreign school contacts, International student union and Czechoslovak students abroad,
    • Department 2 – counterintelligence protection of youth and sport organisations and institutions, extreme trends among youth.
  • Section 4 of Directorate X – anti-socialist forces:
    • Department 1 – Zionism, jewish nationalism, pro-Zionist intelligentsia in science, pro-Zionist youth and world Zionist centres,
    • Department 2 – Organisation of Ukrainian nationalists (OUN), Narodno-trudovoy soyuz (NTS), centres of so-called Eastern emigration, Anti-bolshevik bloc of countries (ABN), Radio Liberty,
    • Department 3 – former representatives of reactionary political parties, counter-revolutionary and extreme forbidden organisations, former punished agents of enemy foreign intelligence, protection of the parties of the National front, Greek emigration, Trockyism and Maoism,
    • Department 4 – illegal press materials and anonymous threat letters, terror, illegal arms, monitoring of records and processing of enemy persons.
  • Section 5 of Directorate X – enemy elements in churches and sects and foreign church centres:
    • Department 1 – Roman-Catholic church and its foreign centres,
    • Department 2 – non-Catholic churches and their foreign centres.

Directorate X operated until 1988 when minister of interior Vratislav Vajnar, upon a motion by the Communist party of Czechoslovakia, issued order No. 12/1988 on 22 July 1988 on the establishment of units of the Federal ministry of interior and units subordinated to the Federal ministry of interior. A major re-organisation of the State security took place which re-joined both units responsible for the fight against the “external” (Directorate II) and against the “internal” (Directorate X) enemy with the unit for the protection of the economy (Directorate XI). As of 1 August 1988, a consolidated Main Directorate of the counterintelligence of the National security corps was created (code name Directorate II of the National security corps) which was subordinated to the 1st deputy minister of interior.